The study of science, engineering, and technology at the Nano scale roughly 1 to 100 anemometers—is known as nanotechnology. Nano science and nanotechnology are the study and use of very small things. They can be employed in chemistry, biology, physics, and physics materials and techniques, among other fields of science.
What Is Nanotechnology And How it Begin
There’s a lot of room at the bottom is the title of a lecture given by physicist Richard Feynman at the American Physical Society meeting at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) on December 29, 1959. This lecture served as the impetus for the theories and concepts that would later underpin Nano science and nanotechnology. Earlier than the word “nanotechnology.” Feynman discussed a method for manipulating and controlling certain atoms and molecules in his address. The word “nanotechnology” was first used by Professor Norio Taniguchi more than ten years later in reference to his breakthroughs in ultra-precision machining. Modern nanotechnology did not start until 1981, with the invention of scanning tunneling microscopes that could “see” individual atoms.
Nanoscience And Nanotechnology
It’s difficult to grasp just how tiny nanotechnology is. One billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter, is a nanometer. Here are a few concrete examples:
An inch is made up of 25.4 million nanometers. A newspaper with a thickness of 100,000 nanometers. Comparatively, the size of the Earth would be one meter if a marble were a nanometer in size. The visibility and manipulation of specific atoms and molecules are key components of Nano science and nanotechnology. Atoms make up every single item on Earth, including the food we consume, the clothing we wear, the houses and structures we live in, and our own bodies. However, an atom is so small that it cannot be seen with the human eye. In reality, scientific classes in high school frequently make use of the fact that a microscope cannot see. The early 1980s saw the development of the microscope required to view objects at the Nano scale.
The era of nanotechnology began once researchers had the appropriate equipment, such as scanning tunneling microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Nano scale materials have been utilized for centuries, despite the fact that current Nano science and nanotechnology are comparatively recent. The stained glass windows of mediaeval churches were colored hundreds of years ago by gold and silver beads of varying sizes. The time’s artists just weren’t aware that the techniques they employed to produce these stunning pieces of art actually brought about changes.
In order to benefit from materials’ improved properties, such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased capacity, controllability of the light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity relative to their larger scale, today’s scientists and engineers are developing a variety of methods for purposefully fabricating materials at the Nano scale partner.
Applications Of Nano Technology In Engineering
A daily process and its ingredients
The ability to modify a material’s structure on a small scale to get desired features, which considerably expands the toolkit of materials science, is a key component of many of the advantages of nanotechnology. . Materials can be enhanced in numerous ways using nanotechnology, including making them more resilient, sensitive, sieve-like, or better conductive. Many currently available, widely used, and advertised commercial goods are based on Nano scale components and procedures:
Nano scale additives or fabric surface treatments can aid personal armor withstand wrinkling, staining, and bacterial growth while also offering a modest deflection of ballistic energy.
Glasses, computer and camera screens, windows, and other surfaces can be made waterproof, anti-scale, anti-reflective, self-cleaning, anti-UV or infrared, anti-fog, anti-bacterial, anti-scratch resistive, or conductive by adding Nano scale transparent films to them.
Washable and robust “smart fabrics” with flexible Nano scale sensors and electronics with health-monitoring, solar-powered capabilities and the ability to gather moving solar energy are now becoming possible thanks to Nano scale materials.
Applications for Electronics And IT
Major developments in computing and electronics have benefited greatly from nanotechnology. As a result, information management and storage systems become quicker, smaller, and more portable. These dynamic applications consist of:
Nanotechnology has allowed transistors, the fundamental switches that enable all modern computers, to become smaller and smaller. Transistor sizes were typically between 130 and 250 nanometers at the turn of the century. Smaller, faster, and better transistors suggest that all of a computer’s memory may soon be held in her one little chip. In 2014, Intel developed a 14-nanometer transistor, followed by IBM’s first 7-nanometer transistor in 2015, and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab’s 1-nanometer transistor in 2016.
Computers may nearly instantaneously “wake up” thanks to Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM). MRAM, which is activated by magnetic tunnel junctions with a nanometer-scale, may swiftly and efficiently store data or resume playback during system shutdown. Now available for purchase are ultra-high definition displays and televisions.
Applications for health and medicine
The clinical tools, information, and therapies now available to doctors are already being expanded by nanotechnology. The use of biological phenomena on their natural scales by Nano medicine, or the application of nanotechnology in medicine, allows for the development of precise approaches to disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Here are a few instances of recent developments in this field:
Gold nanoparticles are being studied therapeutically as potential therapies for cancer and other disorders. Gold nanoparticles are used in commercial applications as probes to identify target sequences in nucleic acids.
Nanotechnology’s improved imaging and diagnostic capabilities open the door to earlier diagnosis, more individualized therapy alternatives, and higher treatment success rates.
Researchers are looking into using nanotechnology to diagnose and treat atherosclerosis, or the accumulation of plaque in arteries. In one method, scientists developed nanoparticles that resemble HDL (high-density lipoprotein), the body’s “good” cholesterol that aids in plaque reduction.